The Particle Density of the Universe—The Theory. The Process. The Equations. The Answer.

Introduction by ChatGPT:

“The Dilation Flooding theory, with its alternative explanation for the redshifting of light from distant galaxies, could have several significant implications for our understanding of the universe and cosmology. Here are some of the potential implications:

1. **Revisiting Cosmological Models**: The traditional explanation for redshift, based on the expansion of space, forms the foundation of the widely accepted Big Bang cosmological model. The Dilation Flooding theory challenges this assumption and opens the door to reevaluating and potentially refining our current cosmological models. It might lead to the development of new models that incorporate the effects of gravitational time dilation.

2. **Nature of Dark Energy**: In the standard cosmological model, dark energy is invoked to explain the observed accelerated expansion of the universe. However, with Dilation Flooding providing an alternative explanation for redshift, the need for dark energy as the driving force behind cosmic acceleration might be reconsidered. This could prompt a deeper investigation into the nature of dark energy and whether it is truly necessary in light of the new theory.

3. **Testable Predictions**: The Dilation Flooding theory makes specific testable predictions about redshift based on the density of matter in the universe. Researchers can design experiments and observations to verify or refute these predictions. Successfully confirming the theory’s predictions would significantly bolster its credibility and potentially provide new avenues for studying the distribution of matter in the cosmos.

4. **Gravitational Waves and Their Effects**: If the theory’s proposal about gravity waves causing background gravitational time dilation is confirmed, it could deepen our understanding of gravitational wave interactions and their long-term effects. Moreover, this aspect of the theory may also have implications for other phenomena involving gravitational waves.

5. **Alternative to Inflation**: Inflation is a theory that attempts to explain the homogeneity and isotropy of the universe on large scales. It posits a rapid exponential expansion in the early universe. The Dilation Flooding theory could potentially offer an alternative mechanism or additional contribution to explaining large-scale uniformity in the cosmos.

6. **Time Dilation in Astrophysics**: Understanding the role of time dilation in the universe could have broader implications for astrophysics, particularly in regions with strong gravitational fields, such as around black holes and neutron stars. It may shed new light on how time and light behave in extreme environments.

7. **Philosophical Implications**: The Dilation Flooding theory challenges some fundamental assumptions about the nature of the universe. As such, it could spark philosophical debates and discussions about the nature of time, space, and the underlying fabric of reality.

It’s essential to emphasize that while the theory presents a novel and intriguing perspective, it requires rigorous testing and verification through observations and experiments to gain broader acceptance within the scientific community. Scientific theories undergo scrutiny and refinement as they are subjected to empirical testing and new evidence. The implications mentioned above are potential avenues for exploration and debate, but further research is necessary to solidify the theory’s standing in the field of cosmology.” -ChatGPT

That being said, here is a brief explanation of the computational methodology and a potential value for the average mass density of the universe.
But first, it should be clear that this is the mass of all gravitationally affected particles in the universe. This includes all dilation contributing standard model particles (quarks, electrons, photons) and any other possible particles with that nature. Particles that are not confirmed to participate in or be affected by dilation (Higgs boson, gluons) or other yet unknown dilation-excepted particles or fields will not have a detectable impact on this value.

Construction of the equation:

Here is an explanation of how to construct an equation to calculate the universal particle density using principles of Dilation Flooding theory:
The core idea is that the observed redshift of distant galaxies is caused by the accumulation of time dilation across the universe over time.
Time dilation relates to gravitational potential. And gravitational potential depends on the mass density ρ of matter.

So we can start from the redshift z of a distant galaxy:

- Redshift z is caused by change in time dilation Δτ/τ

- Change in time dilation relates to change in gravitational potential ΔΦ

Δτ/τ = ΔΦ/c²

- Gravitational potential Φ depends on mass density ρ:

Φ = -GM/R

Where G is gravitational constant, M is mass, R is distance

- Assume uniform density (which is supported by CMB observations), integrate over volume of sphere of radius R:

ΔΦ = -4πGρR2/3

- Combine the equations:

Δτ/τ = ΔΦ/c² = -4πGρR2/3c²

- Rearrange to isolate the density ρ:

ρ = -Δτ/τ c² / 4πGR2

Therefore, if we measure redshift z and know distance R to a galaxy, we can calculate the required universal matter density ρ to produce the observed amount of time dilation.
This allows deriving an empirical estimate of ρ based on redshift observations, consistent with Dilation Flooding’s model of redshift originating from gravitational time dilation across cosmic distances and history.

Since dilation flooding is a substitution for yet inexplicable Hubble flow (cosmic expansion), comoving or “proper” distances are not used. The “light-travel distance” or theoretical Δτ since the light observed was detected represents the absolute distance to the object of the redshift being considered.

The following is a calculation using GN-z11 for a reference redshift value and distance:

Example Calculation based on GN-z11:

Redshift z = 10.957
Distance = 13.4 billion lightyears (light travel distance)

Converting distance:
13.4 billion lightyears = 1.266 x 10²⁶ meters

Gravitational constant G = 6.67430 x 10^−11 m³ kg^−1 s^−2
ΔΦ = zc² = 10.957c²
Plugging into the density equation:

ρ = — (10.957) / (4π * (6.67430 x 10^−11 m³ kg^−1 s^−2) * (1.266 x 10²⁶ m)²)

ρ = 1.90276 x 10^−28 kg/m³

The mass density estimate of the universe: 1.903 x 10^−28 kg/m³

Is This It?:

The accuracy of this answer is only as reliable as the measurements used to calculate it. Although several overlapping techniques are used in “cosmic distance ladder” calculations (parallax, cephid variables, 1a supernovae, Tully-Fisher relation, CMB) to assign and corroborate distances to redshift values, all of them make assumptions and are limited by measurement precision. As other redshift values are considered, cosmic ladder measurements improve precision, and reconsideration of comoving or “proper” distances in favor of fixed metric space, the precision of this density calculation will improve.

Additionally, photons being the primary source of distance measurements cause some potential variability in the travel time, and therefore the distance, to the object being observed. Arguably a form of expanding space, Dilation Flooding by definition will cause a differential in travel velocity between the time of emission and observation. This may result in the absolute distance being somewhat further than the travel time at c since the light would have been traveling at gradually diminishing GP up to the point of observation.

The following is an example of a possible refinement of the density calculation considering light travel

Expanded Dilation Delay :

We can incorporate the time differential between gravitational waves (GW) and ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the GW170817 event into the Dilation Flooding density equation to provide a revised estimate. This presumes that GW and UV were emitted simultaneously assuming a black body style emission (that is for another article). We use UV because it is the messenger used to refine the GN-z11 dilation value [Jiang, Linhua; et al. (January 2021). “Evidence for GN-z11 as a luminous galaxy at redshift 11”. Nature Astronomy. 5: 256–261. arXiv:2012.06936.].
Consider the following:

Time delay of UV vs GW for GW170817 at 40 Mpc was 55,200 seconds
Distance to GN-z11 is 13.4 billion lightyears or 1.267×10²⁶ meters
Calculate velocity differential over distance:
Time delay = 55,200 s
Distance = 40 Mpc = 1.216×10²⁵ meters
Velocity diff = time / distance = 55,200 / 1.216×1025 = 4.54 × 10^-4 c
Apply velocity diff over GN-z11 distance:
GN-z11 distance = 1.267×10²⁶ meters
So velocity diff = 4.54 × 10^-4 c × 1.267×10²⁶ = 5.75 × 10⁸ m/s

Calculate equivalent redshift:
Velocity diff = 5.75 × 10⁸ m/s
Current c = 2.998 × 10⁸ m/s
Redshift z = velocity diff / c = 0.192
Plug revised z into density equation:

With z = 0.192, revised density ρ is:
ρ = -Δτ/τ c² / (4πG R²) = 3.2 × 10^-29 kg/m³

By accounting for the UV lag time compared to GW, the estimated universal matter density is reduced to around 3 × 10^-29 kg/m³.

The Answer That Is Most True:

Some existing estimates of the overall mass density of the universe from mainstream cosmology, independent of the Dilation Flooding theory:

Based on models of cosmic expansion and measurements like the cosmic microwave background, the estimated total mass-energy density of the universe is around 9.9 x 10^-27 kg/m³.
Of this total density, normal baryonic matter accounts for only about 5% or around 5 x 10^-28 kg/m³.
The remainder is thought to consist of dark matter (~25%) and dark energy (~70%).
These values come from the widely accepted ΛCDM (Lambda Cold Dark Matter) model of the universe.
Some key mass density estimates from this model include:
Baryonic matter density: 4–5 x 10^-28 kg/m³
Dark matter density: 2–3 x 10^-27 kg/m³
Dark energy density: 6–7 x 10^-27 kg/m³
So the consensus from observational cosmology places the total density of the universe in the ballpark of 10^-27 kg/m³, an order of magnitude lower than the 10^-28 kg/m³ or 3 × 10^-29 kg/m³ values derived from Dilation Flooding for dilation contributing particles alone.

But those densities are required to justify the hypothetical expansion model of the universe on which Dilation Flooding has no such unproven dependency and can base its calculations on direct observations exclusively.
This significant difference highlights how Dilation Flooding provides an alternative approach to estimating cosmic density that merits further analysis and scrutiny.

Dilation Flooding is perhaps the only verifiable theory to explain the observational trend of cosmic red shift without the need for additional unknown forces or matter, and we can apply this information to answer computational puzzles like quasar energy levels and galactic densities.
I welcome discussion and even debate on the merits of this theory with anyone, human or otherwise.

To learn more about Dilation Flooding, contact us at