Although the dark matter theory explains the discrepancy between the gravity we observe in distant galaxies and their total visible mass, it has a fundamental weakness. Nobody has ever been able to observe dark matter or explain what it’s made of.
Dare to Know
I think that alone says it all. If the JWST has shown us anything useful to this point, it is that we will never be able to see all extant matter at any scale. Therefore, making claims on calculations based simply on what is not visible seems to be an obvious flaw in any theory based on that alone.
However, it seems clear that it will take a long time to convince the majority consensus to drop Dark Matter/Energy and shed their hubris to consider alternatives.
IMHO, to answer these questions there is a different approach we can take to determine or at least better estimate matter density that directly establises a universal background level. The only thing that surprises me is that nowhere have I found any comparable theory or approach. I would be willing to discuss with anyone the merits of this theory as a potential answer to these yet unanswerable questions.
Thank you again for bringing up these significant topics! Relevant questions like these are the key to making real progress in the sciences.