First, I want to thank you for reading my article. Your comment on needing integration not only shows your understanding, but exposes why I most closely identify with Michael Faraday. I am not familiar with writing integrations but have done so semi-manually and by using other tools to verify the trends I describe.

In agreement with your observation, the trend is established by summing the solutions to the equation at a plurality of equidistant R values. Proper integration would directly plot that trend based on G and M values used, and there is likely the ability to simplify further. I look forward to anyone with a better calculus skillset to try and “James Maxwell” this theory 😁.

From looking at the equations in the Robert Gentry paper you referenced, I believe he leveraged the same geometrical consideration in his equations and included that same integration. I suspect the biggest difference in our approaches is that I am referencing the change at the observer’s point with an expanding horizon (not expanding space, but expanding sphere of influence/observation over time) whereas he seemed to envision the system from an originating horizon inwards. In either case, the rule of squares adds to the emanating surface as R expands while reducing the power of that surface at that distance. That has to be one of the most elegant way to use exponents to describe a straight line, especially for a lab provable scenario!

I do believe that my approach has measurable evidence and application, and have attempted to explore so in the following article. Recognizing that time dilation, even in a non-expanding space context, will have some influence on ‘c’ propagation, I also explore briefly the possibility of adding that to the integration. Please note I used an assistant for the math, so it needs to be scrutinized.

I understand that I can be wordy, some of my descriptions may be unconventional, and I also strive to be apologetic. That being said, this article may better summarize my theory with a virtual QnA that may better illustrate some of the more difficult to convey aspects.

I look forward to your thoughts. Thank you for taking an interest in my efforts!



George J. Woolridge for

The mission of WhetScience is the pursuit and dissemination of accurate scientific and technical knowledge. Feel free to contact us at